Strong during the Qing Dynasty, the construction of many royal gardens, its representative in Beijing of the Three Hills and Five Park (Yuquan Shan Jing Ming Yuen, Xiangshan Providence Park, Summer Palace, and Chang Chun Longevity Hill, Summer Palace) and the Garden Palace (now the North Sea, scenery, Zhongnanhai).
To reflect the national great unity, the Qing use “shrink to move into the monarch days pregnant,” the garden design method, the well-known all over the country and representation of landscape architecture into the landscape composition. One of the most unique is the Tibetan architecture.
Junji start from, the body mass Chong Hong tall, gorgeous colorful Tibetan Lama Temple, La Mata introduced a large number of royal gardens, garden more colorful image of the building, which in the Qianlong period, it is particularly prominent. North Sea, the Summer Palace, Lama Temple is particularly spectacular, but until now kept largely intact, for us to enjoy.
White Pagoda style and Tibetan sutras
We enter the south gate of Beihai Park, the bridge across the Yongding, head is a vibrant landscape of the North Sea – Qiongdao, and as Qiongdao facade is a Lama Temple, the “Temple of Eternal Blessing.” Above the third major temple, the name “Pu Dian”, Miankuo five. East side hall “holy fruit,” West side hall “cases mirror,” are Miankuo three. Pu worship hall as Tsongkhapa, founder of Tibetan Buddhism, the two disciples on both sides for the Dalai Lama, Panchen like.
Then climb seventy steps, that is, the highest point reached Qiongdao, good for the house and the White Tower. Good for the house in front, and Wing Temple for the same central axis, a square city of Taiwan, on the glass structure was built vinyl eaves hall, the pavilion-style roof canopies for the round, yellow glazed tiles under the eaves for the green square cut edges gilt bronze Tongwa King ding, take “hemispherical dome” of justice. Tibetan Buddhism, the original hall for Wade King Kong as big.
After the good result is the temple of white tower 35.9 m high, the typical follow-bowl-style La Mata. Tibetan sutras and possession of legend tower. White Tower is the tallest building in the North Sea, North Sea, the landmark building is also the North Sea, dotting the landscape of the garden for. The northwest corner of the North Sea can be said that a lamasery world. Broadly speaking, can be divided into three groups: the Western Paradise Vatican territory, and the Ten Thousand Buddhas Temple illustrates floor, Xiaoxitian.
Vatican territory in the North Sea North Shore Western Paradise, is a combination of Chinese and Tibetan temple architecture, also known as Great Western Paradise. Tall mountain in front of a four-poster F, glass arch, the momentum of strong macro, majestic and magnificent, South Amount “China Tibetan community,” North amount “Sumeru Spring”, are the Qianlong Emperor Yu Shu.
Vatican Western Paradise is famous throughout the West, Nine Dragon Wall, which turned out to be “Dayuanjingzhi palace” of the screen wall. According to “China (Qing) Dynasty Palace History” volume sixteen reads: “Vatican territory west of the Western Paradise, a glass wall (that is, Nine Dragon Wall), the essence of the north wall, door, door to Taiyuanjingzhi palace, said rear pavilions’ Po net ‘Yunting, Pavilion Buildings North and about forty Sanying, are four Buddhist scriptures plate of the storage. ”
Wind-room palace and other buildings have been destroyed in the history of the vicissitudes of life in the ruined, the only remaining Nine Dragon Wall, and the true meaning of the door. The ceiling is the essence of the door mantra, that is a lamasery of its original, for the board of the Buddhist scriptures. Nine Dragon Wall of the West, has tall stone steps, a Kui-Ran of the gate is located on it, the amount of questions, “illustrates Temple” is the eleventh year of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong (1746) Construction of the Royal Lama Temple, the Long Imitation Zhengding County Hing Temple. Historically, it is very glorious spectacular. Within the gate for the King Hall, so Bell and Drum Tower, the main building is three eaves of the Great Buddha, looks like the three towers, the Lama Temple Buddha floor with the same shape, which for a gold Phoebe with thousands of carved goddess eyes of Buddha.
Interpretation of Temple of the West, the original construction of a glazed brick, “House of Ten Thousand Buddhas”, seven three-bay, is thirty years of Qianlong (1771) Queen Mother to celebrate the 80th birthday or so. The original Astor front door, and the stone bridge (the bridge north-south tree arch). The manufacturing floor, imitation palace, the former white marble building sets, three Pi, the left tree, pole banners, right stand stone buildings, buildings engraved with the Han, Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan text written in four-body Emperor Qianlong, “House of Ten Thousand Buddhas Feast of” poetry.
House of Ten Thousand Buddhas south, west of Temple illustrates, the “nirvana”, commonly known as “Xiaoxitian” (Republic of China has “Goddess of Mercy Temple,” said.) It was built in thirty-three years of Qianlong (1768), thirty-five years (1770) completed, but also to celebrate her sixty birthday of Qianlong, his mother Empress eighty birthday Lamaism built buildings. However, its architectural form, different from other royal Lama Temple. Fang Zheng is the layout of the building group close together. Hall surrounded by water on all sides, the middle of building stone, the bridge outside the seventh floor of the glass arch built a four-column, four corners and save the building eaves and a pointed Fontane. In the Qing Dynasty royal building, this group also have distinctive architectural features, unique, and is extremely solemn and magnificent.
Summer Palace in the “wheel possession”
Summer Palace is also famous ancient imperial garden in China, Kunming Lake and Longevity Hill it is the main material base and landscape, creating a blend of large palace and gardens garden. Kunming Lake is modeled on West Lake in Hangzhou, a famous imitation of southern landscape garden and gardening practices, spectacular lakes and mountains to rivers and lakes. The Longevity Hill is the Lama Temple is the main building, resulting in a Buddhist world.
Tower of Buddhist Incense is located in the octagonal stone Xu Mizuo, the Genei many original Buddha worship, when the Boxer Rebellion Xianfeng destroyed after the war of aggression in Beijing. Now dedicated to the modern woman, 80 years of last century were moved from the Amitabha temple; Qianfo Ge, the Church has a four-post structure of the seventh floor vinyl, stone door three coupons, yellow green glazed tile cutting edge Xie Shanding. The north of the mountain top, built Miankuo five, two-story brick structure for the securities hall, the “wisdom of the sea” (meaning the wisdom of the Buddha, such as the sea), the external walls of glass mosaic one thousand statues, which for the Goddess of Mercy, P Yin, Monju, like; runner possession of imitation Hangzhou Fa Yun Monastery scripture library construction. Booths are equipped with upper and lower sides, the octagonal tower save point type Danyan. The lower floor runner Dongting possession of home for bronze 16, the upper four wheel Tibetan Buddha 32. West Pavilion is the flower offering lower the Buddha, a Buddha 4, the upper five floors offer flower Buddha, a Buddha 40. Two kiosks are pagoda through, the tower has axis. Interlinked tunnels under the tower, the tower shaft organs start, the tower along with rotation. The architectural forms, known as “runner possession.” It is a construction of a form of religious objects. We can often be seen in the Tibetan areas, monks and laity Petiole small hand-held prayer wheel (containing scriptures), gyrate, mouth also kept chanting the mantra. In their view, the rock turning drum circle is equivalent to chanting again, chanting is a very convenient method. Tibet runner in the pagoda is a large prayer wheel, is set to facilitate bowing Empress who, in the Temples were by the Putuo Temple, also has such a turning pagoda, with the same shape.
After the slope of Longevity Hill is also a spiritual environment to Sumeru The Temple as the center of large buildings. Sumeru is located in the Longevity Hill North Mountain Spirit Habitat, sitting northward, slightly T-shaped plane, the mountain on the potential, followed by increased construction, appears structured, patchwork, rhythm-oriented. The whole building regulations, with much the same Puning Temple Temples, the construction time is much the same, are in the twenty years of Qianlong (1755) before and after. Before and after the entire complex is divided into two parts, the first half for the Chinese-style Buddhist temple pattern of imitation of the latter part of the first Buddhist temple in Tibet, Samye Monastery.
After the spiritual environment in the Sumeru (South) side there is a high wall of King Kong, Tibet, Samye Monastery of Tibetan architecture simulation to build the wall of the plateau in the diamond, the pattern is identical with the second half of Puning Temple in Chengde. It is printed in Hong rock were the center of the Court (the equivalent of the Court of Chengde Puning Temple of the Mahayana), in the Buddhist sense, is home to Mount Sumeru Buddha. Four Big Island are built around eight small part of Africa, sun and moon temple, four-color tower. Ministry of the so-called four different continents in the shape of the high platform. Four to eight small outside the Department of the Ministry of Chau Island, Tibetan Tibetan stone house platforms are built on a small house. British and French troops also destroyed in the war, there were Indian incense rocks on both sides of the good things that are between the Temple, clouds Temple, are Tibetan Lama Temple.
Providence garden “called the temple”
Famous landscape gardens in western Beijing Fragrant Hill resort, in the Qing Dynasty called “Providence Park”, also a famous imperial gardens. The Temple royal garden in this large-scale landscape composition, also has an important position. Among them, the most famous of course, is “Mirror large number of call” of the temple (known as “call the temple”). It is forty-five years of Qianlong (1780) to come to Beijing to celebrate the seventieth birthday of the Sixth Panchen Emperor Vatican repair, residential and construction. The Regulation and Temples Temple of Sumeru Temple (known as “Panchen palace”) is basically the same. A little fake Panchen Lama in Tibet Shigatse hall of residence Tashilhunpo meaning. Because of its main building has been destroyed, can not be detailed to the reader. However, the surviving glass pagoda is still so touching that with a view.
Today, as we fame in the Qing Dynasty imperial garden, the walk leisure, refreshing, the taste of the unique Tibetan culture, is a spirit of enjoyment. Meanwhile, the landscape architecture can also be written as history books, it will “Tibet has been an integral and important part of China”, written in the land of the motherland, people of all nationalities together to create the Chinese traditional culture, is always a beautiful harmonious whole.